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Still another measure might be noted, one that has stirred considerable recent debate. That is the impact of giving confirmatory land-rights documents titles to those already in reasonably uncontested possession of land by contrast, there is little question that beneficiaries of redistribution of land that had been privately owned by someone else, such as tenants receiving the land of former landlords, or agricultural laborers receiving the land of former plantation owners, should receive confirmatory documentation.

The issue as to titling those in already-existing uncontested, but undocumented, possession is more complex than may be immediately evident.

Some customary or traditional land rights may exist as distinct elements or layers that may be difficult to separately describe and document; some may be held by groups rather than individuals; and in some settings those who actually hold the rights may be preempted through corruption or chicanery by false claimants when a documentation process occurs. The benefits of giving documentation to uncontested existing possessors appear to be situational, emerging most clearly in urban settings.

The two most populous developing countries at the beginning of the twenty-first century, China and India, are also the two most critical arenas for further land reform measures. Both countries have already adopted the essential laws, but both need to move to much wider implementation. In India, the central government needs to help finance, and the individual states need both to finance and implement, a widespread homestead-plot program.

There are many additional settings where land reform efforts could have a major impact. Homestead-plot programs, for example, hold important potential in Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a number of other Asian, African, and Latin American countries with significant numbers of landless poor. And, in some settings, unused or underutilized land in large estates may still be sufficient in quantity and cheap enough in price to provide full-size farms to many of the rural poor: for example, in Brazil and further significant parts of Latin America , as well as in some parts of Africa with large-farm colonial legacies.

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Land And Labor In Europe In The Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey Of Agrarian History

Also, communist or formerly communist countries that have not yet done so must eventually confront the twin tasks of decollectivizing and privatizing their inefficient and low-productivity collective-farm sectors, among them North Korea and Cuba. Others, like Russia and Ukraine, which have formally privatized, will have to facilitate the actual breakup of the large farms. Altogether, the remaining potential for land reform is at least as great as what was carried out globally during the six decades after World War II.

Every land reform, no matter how well designed, has to take account of broader economic, social, and political challenges and issues in the particular country. Economic Issues Land reform neither creates nor destroys land: It simply puts an existing population into a relationship with an existing agricultural land base that is likely to be fairer and more productive than the present one. One consideration is that the accumulated evidence now indicates that small farms are, in terms of total factor productivity that is, with regard to the value of land, capital, and labor inputs , generally more productive than larger farms in less-developed-country settings.

Such countries are typically short on land, short on capital, and long on labor. Hence it makes good economic sense to have many motivated families — and ownership provides crucial motivation — applying family labor intensively on small farms while using as little capital machinery, pesticides, etc. A related economic point on which there is general agreement is that large farms with a large number of laborers working together — such as most plantations or collective farms — are generally inefficient, because of the great difficulty of supervising labor on these far-flung operations with their complex and variable sequences of tasks.

A further economic point: Viable land reform in the transitional communist or formerly communist societies entails no land costs, since the land to be redistributed is presently publicly owned. And improved design will greatly reduce total land costs in traditional developing-country settings, wherever policymakers opt for a program based on homestead plots rather than full-size farms.

A final economic point, applicable in both traditional land-reform settings and those of the transitional societies, is whether recipients of individual land rights should be restricted in selling or leasing those rights, and if there are such restrictions, how broad should they be and how long should they last?

There is disagreement on these issues: Such restrictions may improvidently prevent the creation of wealth in the hands of land-reform beneficiaries, but they may also forestall hasty sales at a low price or leases having adverse terms. Restrictions that are temporary and narrower e. Social Issues This entry noted above some of the likely consequences of successful redistributive land reform. Political Issues To communicate the economic and social case for land reform is, in many settings, to move considerably toward achieving the necessary political support. Deininger, Klaus.

Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction. Field, Erica. Property Rights and Investment in Urban Slums. Journal of the European Economic Association 3 2 — 3 : — Ghimire, Krishna B. Whose Land? Lanham, MD: Lexington. Mitchell, Robert, and Tim Hanstad. LSP Working Paper Prosterman, Roy, and Jeffrey Riedinger. Land Reform and Democratic Development.

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Thiesenhusen, William C. Boulder, CO: Worldview. Toulmin, Camilla, and Julian Quan, eds. London: Department for International Development. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 24, Retrieved September 24, from Encyclopedia.

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The word "agrarianism" comes from the Latin lex agraria, an ancient Roman law that called for the equal division of public lands. In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England, the word identified any land reform movement that sought to redistribute cultivated lands equally. Such agitation was a response in part to the eighteenth-century English Enclosure Acts, which disrupted traditional agricultural practices.

In the twentieth century the word shed this radical reform definition. In the early twenty-first century agrarianism points to a collection of political, philosophical, and literary ideas that together tend to describe farm life in ideal terms. Agrarianism finds expression in the literary pastoral tradition, which stretches back to ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Theocritus and Virgil.

The pastoral envisions the natural world as an escape from the complexities of urban life. In a rural landscape the character is restored by his interaction with nature, which then enables him to return to the city. In many accounts the pastoral also represents the human hope for the return of a golden age, the simple, happy life of long ago.

Borrowing from the French Physiocrats the idea that farming is the only truly productive enterprise, agrarianism claims that agriculture is the foundation of all other professions and is the only source of wealth. Philosophically agrarianism reflects the ideas of John Locke , who declared in his Second Treatise of Civil Government that those who work land are its rightful owners. His labor theory of value influenced the thinking of Thomas Jefferson , who in turn shaped the way many nineteenth-century American homesteaders understood ownership of their farms.

In the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, agrarianism felt the influence of the European Romantic movement. The British Romantic William Wordsworth , for example, chose to describe rural life in his poems because in country living the "essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity" p. Romantics focused attention on the individual and described nature as a spiritual force.

As someone in constant contact with nature, the farmer was positioned to experience moments that transcend the mundane material world. Central to agrarianism is private property. In Letters from an American Farmer , J. Hector St. Providing for his family using what he has available to him from nature and from his own abilities, this farmer draws his social and political identity from laboring in the earth. Following the American Revolution , the availability of land and a relatively small U. In Notes on the State of Virginia , Jefferson defines the yeoman as a self-sufficient man free from "the casualties and caprice of customers" and the machinations of manufacturers and land speculators p.

Jefferson's farmer owns a small piece of land that he and his family work to provide for themselves food, clothing, and shelter. In exchange for manufactured items, he sells any surplus goods to the "mobs of great cities" in Europe p. A defender of the Republic, this ideal farmer seeks to preserve his family's presence on the land through several generations. He embodies the bedrock virtues of the new nation: frugality, hard work, charity toward others, and love of God.

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Though Jefferson later modified his agrarian stance "Letter to Benjamin Austin," p. Agrarianism is woven into the fabric of much U. American writers of the time came of age in a predominantly agricultural nation. Roughly 80 percent of people lived on farms in , major cities were mainly confined to the East Coast, and the nation's industrialization had yet to take hold.

By , however, just over half of the people lived on farms, cities had sprouted across the West, railroads linked both coasts, and U. With the Industrial Revolution transforming social and economic relationships, Americans turned nostalgically to representations of simple rural life.

Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25

In the visual arts, the work of Jasper Cropsey and Asher Durand, who played major roles in the Hudson River school , were attracted to pastoral landscapes. The idealized rural scenes of Nathaniel Currier and James Merritt Ives dominated the mid-nineteenth-century popular art market. Jerome Thompson's The Haymakers is typical of idyllic farm scenes painted in the antebellum period.

George Inness , perhaps the greatest nineteenth-century landscape painter, depicted in Peace and Plenty a tranquil harvest scene that offers a sense of healing for a nation wounded by civil war.